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Centroplasthelida Febvre-Chevalier and Febvre, 1984

Diagnosis: Phagotrophic and non-photosynthetic protists with one large spherical or near spherical centrosome at the center of the cell and numerous radiating axopodia. Axopodia always with extrusomes that are either kinetocysts or tiny dense ellipsoids.
Two are clades are distinguished:

Panacanthocystida Shishkin et Zlatogursky, 2018

Diagnosis: Centrohelids usually covered with siliceous scales or with organic spicules: scale-bearing species with both inner plate scales and outer scales of other morphology or only plate scales with a hollow inrolled margin; outer scales may be of different types based on archetype of plate scale morphology or radially symmetrical, present in one of two forms: funnel-shaped, or needle-like with a radially symmetrical base.

Pterocystida Cavalier-Smith and Heyden, 2007 stat. n.

Phylogenetic diagnosis: The least inclusive clade, containing Pterocystis devonica, Raphidiophrys heterophryoidea and Choanocystis curvata, but not Acanthocystis nichollsi.

Recent posts

Spiculophrys

Genus Spiculophrys Zlatogursky, 2016 Diagnosis: Centrohelids lacking silica scales but with numerous thin, pointed organic (without any traces of silica) scales tapering towards acute apices. 18S

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Acanthocystis drakena

From Zlatogursky, 2016 Acanthocystis drakena Zlatogursky, 2016 Diagnosis: Cells are 21.1-30.5 µm (ca. 26.7) in diameter. Cell is covered with oval plate-scales having a margin

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Choanocystis symna

From Zlatogursky, 2014 Choanocystis symna Zlatogursky, 2014 Diagnosis: Cell body ca. 6.7 µm in diameter. Axopodia three–five times longer than a cell diameter. Plate-scales dumbbell-shaped

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Acanthocystis costata

From Zlatogursky, 2014 Acanthocystis costata Zlatogursky, 2014 Diagnosis: Cell body ca 9.5 µm in diameter. Axopodia 2–3 times longer than cell diameter. Length of spine-scales

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Kinetocyst

Left: ultra-structure of a kinetocyst of Raphidiophrys contractilis); right: two kinetocysts in an axopodium. Kinetocysts In centrohelid heliozoa, extrusomes are called kinetocysts, and are present

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Yogsothoth carteri

Yogsothoth carteri, after Shishkin and Zlatogursky, 2018 Yogsothoth carteri Shishkin and Zlatogursky, 2018 Diagnosis: Individual cells in a colony have a diameter of 9.7-15.2 µm;

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