Difflugia elegans
Difflugia elegans, length 84-102 µm, Gaasterland

Difflugia elegans Penard, 1890

Diagnosis: Shell outline rough, pyriform usually with a constriction near the aperture to form a neck; an aboral tubular horn present, often curved and perforated at the apex; shell composed of small to large pieces of angular quartz and sometimes diatom frustules, bounded together by an organic cement; aperture usually circular, surrounded by an irregular mixture of particles which are collected to build a new shell; the apex of the test sometimes has two spines more or less symmetrically placed instead of a single spine. Nucleus spherical, with a number of nucleoli scattered throughout the nucleus; nucleoli with small lacunae.

Dimensions: Penard (1904): Length 80-100 µm. Length in literature 80-162 µm; width 39-99 µm. My measurements: Length 84-103 µm (n=49); nucleus 16.3-19.8 µm (n=2).

Remarks: Variation in the construction of the test is considerable, as is the length of the tubular horn, but the constriction behind the aperture distinguishes this species from D. bacillariarum which it closely resembles. Characteristic for this species is the almost always present bunch of mineral particles around the pseudostome.

Difflugia elegans
a D. elegans var. angustata, b-d D. elegansGaasterland, Netherlands
Difflugia elegans
Difflugia elegans, length 102-108 µm – Naardermeer, Netherlands
Difflugia elegans
Difflugia elegans
Difflugia elegans, nuclei – from Gaasterland, Netherlands
Difflugia elegans
Difflugia elegans, from Penard, 1902
Difflugia elegans - Ferry Siemensma
Difflugia elegans, pseudostome surrounded by a bunch of mineral particles
Difflugia elegans - Ferry Siemensma
Difflugia elegans, three specimens joined together
Difflugia elegans - Ferry Siemensma
Difflugia elegans, three joined specimens
Difflugia elegans - Ferry Siemensma
Difflugia elegans, with a bunch of mineral particles
Difflugia elegans - Ferry Siemensma
Difflugia elegans, with pseudopodia, phase contrast
Difflugia elegans, 85 µm, with collected building material – rain forest lagoon, Peru
Difflugia elegans
Difflugia elegans, plot of a number of measurements of shells from the Gaasterland location, July 2019. It might be possible that D. bicornis falls within the variation of D. elegans, but these shells are much larger.
Difflugia elegans
Difflugia elegans
Difflugia elegans, from Tirol, Austria; nucleus from the Austrian sample
Difflugia elegans
Difflugia elegans
Nucleus, stacked images
Difflugia elegans, from a peat bog in Tirol, Austria – 106-120 µm
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