world of amoeboid organisms


How to prepare shells?

When you want to observe shells you have to prepare them for your microscope. In most samples shells are scarce and hidden by a lot of accompanying debris and sand grains. There are some methods to get rid of most that. Some use air bubbles to separate shells from debris. A simple method was published by Todorov and Golemansky:

At the laboratory, the material was dried for one day in a thermostat at 60° C. Then, for the microscopic analysis, the material was soaked and mixed in chlorinated tap water for about ten minutes, after which was filtered through a sieve with 500 µmesh to remove large organic and mineral particles. The resulting filtrate was allowed to precipitate for two hours, the sediment was removed and the shells that floated on the surface were collected for examination. The study was carried out 12 hours after the flotation, when the gas bubbles inside the shells completely disappeared and the structure of the shells was well visible. The testate amoebae were determined and counted at 160x and 400x magnifications with an optical microscope.

Recent posts


Genus Spiculophrys Zlatogursky, 2016 Diagnosis: Centrohelids lacking silica scales but with numerous thin, pointed organic (without any traces of silica) scales tapering towards acute apices. 18S

Read More »

Acanthocystis drakena

From Zlatogursky, 2016 Acanthocystis drakena Zlatogursky, 2016 Diagnosis: Cells are 21.1-30.5 µm (ca. 26.7) in diameter. Cell is covered with oval plate-scales having a margin

Read More »

Choanocystis symna

From Zlatogursky, 2014 Choanocystis symna Zlatogursky, 2014 Diagnosis: Cell body ca. 6.7 µm in diameter. Axopodia three–five times longer than a cell diameter. Plate-scales dumbbell-shaped

Read More »

Acanthocystis costata

From Zlatogursky, 2014 Acanthocystis costata Zlatogursky, 2014 Diagnosis: Cell body ca 9.5 µm in diameter. Axopodia 2–3 times longer than cell diameter. Length of spine-scales

Read More »


Left: ultra-structure of a kinetocyst of Raphidiophrys contractilis); right: two kinetocysts in an axopodium. Kinetocysts In centrohelid heliozoa, extrusomes are called kinetocysts, and are present

Read More »

Yogsothoth carteri

Yogsothoth carteri, after Shishkin and Zlatogursky, 2018 Yogsothoth carteri Shishkin and Zlatogursky, 2018 Diagnosis: Individual cells in a colony have a diameter of 9.7-15.2 µm;

Read More »