Microworld

world of amoeboid organisms

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Introduction

This website includes those groups of protists traditionally lumped under the name “amoebae”. Protists are defined only as a confederation of eukaryote organisms lacking the tissue level of organization seen in plants, animals, and fungi. The term “amoebae” is used for those protists that move and feed by means of cytoplasmic streaming. This unique method of locomotion is called amoeboid movement. Amoebae are also characterized by an irregular shape and the lack of a constant body form. The name “amoeba” is derived from an ancient Greek word, that means “changing”. Cilia, if present,  are usually restricted to developmental stages. A characteristic feature of amoeboid locomotion is the formation of pseudopodia, temporary cytoplasmic extensions.
Amoeboid protists comprise a large and very diverse group with over 15,000 described species. Most are free-living, ubiquitous organisms that are widespread in nature and can be found in nearly any moist or aquatic habitat, aerobic or anaerobic. Some amoeboids are endosymbiotic, including pathogenic forms and parasites.
Many protists move and feed by amoeboid behavior, but many of them aren’t closely related at all. Therefore, the term “amoebae” has no taxonomic value and is comparable with classifying organisms in e.g. “flying animals” or “four-legged animals”.

Diversity
Traditionally amoebae were divided into shelled (Testacea) and naked amoeboids (Gymnamoebae). These names were recognized taxonomic units to describe these Protozoa, but the use of new techniques like the electron microscope has dramatically changed our scope. An example is the common amoeba Korotnevella (Fig. 1).

Korotnevella
Fig. 1: Korotnevella – EM-Photo Eckhard Voelcker

In light microscopy it appears to be naked, without any visible covering (Fig. 1A), but electron microscopy reveals that the cell is densely covered with self secreted micro-scales (Fig. 1B).

Some amoeboids like Cochliopodium species have larger micro-scales that can easily be seen with a light microscope. A coating of micro-scales is flexible and protects the -slow moving- cell against predators. It’s called a tectum.

Other amoeboids have developed a thickened cell membrane called pellicle or theca. There are also amoebae that build a kind of shell like snailes do. Such shells or tests are made from collected materials from the environment or from self secreted scales or platelets or a combination of both.

The largest number of amoeboid organisms can be found with the phyla Amoebozoa and Cercozoa. They have by far the greatest biomass of any protist taxon in soil and are also abundant in every marine habitat. They prey on bacteria and other protists.

Polychaos dubium

Polychaos dubium, a medium sized naked amoeba, changing its irregular shape within a minute.
Recent posts

Kibisidytes

K. marinus, after Jepps, 1934 Kibisidytes marinus Jepps, 1934 Diagnosis: Small amoeboid organism occurring in the sea, attached to the surface film or to some

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Phaeobola

P. aeris from Dumack et al., 2000 Phaeobola Dumack et al., 2000 Diagnosis: Cells roundish to oval shaped. Shell colorless to amber-colored, rough surface, few

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Rhizaspis armata

R. armata, 68 µm long, excl. spines – Laegieskamp Rhizaspis armata (Lauterborn, 1901) Dumack et al., 2021 Basionym: Pamphagus armatum Lauterborn, 1890 Diagnosis: Theca membranous,

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Rhizaspis spinosa

The original description with original drawings, Penard, 1890. Rhizaspis spinosa (Penard, 1890) Dumack et al., 2021 Basionym: Trinema spinosum Penard, 1890 Diagnosis: Theca membranous, ovoid

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Difflugia “pseudoclaviformis”

Difflugia “pseudoclaviformis”, front and side view, 424 µm Difflugia “pseudoclaviformis” Diagnosis: Shell pyriform, compressed, with a more or less pronounced aboral protuberance; shell composed of

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Difflugia from Lolo Pass

Shells 461-448 µm, stacked image. I found this large en remarkable shells in sediment of a small mountain lake near Lolo Pass, Montana USA. It differs

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Foraminifer drome

Unknown species, collected from the river Drôme, France, 2021 Unknown species September 2021, I found about ten specimens of an agglutinated foraminifer in a sample

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Cyclopyxis spec

Cyclopyxis spec., 168 µm Cyclopyxis spec. Diagnosis: Shell circular in ventral and dorsal view, more or less hemispherical in lateral view (height/diameter ≈ 0.5); lateral

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Difflugia fallax

Difflugia fallax, from Penard, 1902 Difflugia fallax Penard, 1890 Diagnosis: Shell hyaline or yellowish-greenish, black at low magnification, round in cross section, formed of a

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