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Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis, 200 µm long; the right image is viewed through the aperture

Zivkovicia spectabilis (Penard, 1902) Ogden, 1987

Diagnosis: test pyriform, circular in oral view, with a clear broad neck; test covered with sand- or quartz-grains arranged on an organic matrix; aperture circular; internally at the junction of the neck with a perforated diaphragm, with two holes.

Dimensions: Penard (1902): length of shell 125-170 µm; Todorov and Bankov (2019): Length 102-131 µm; my measurements: Length 110-200 µm.

Ecology: In sediment of mesotrophic water bodies and in Sphagnum.

Remarks: It’s difficult to get a clear view of the diaphragm. Most often the diaphragm is obscured by debris in the neck.

Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis, both arrows point to the internal diaphragm.
Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis, with diaphragm; The image is composed of two microphotos in Photoshop, each made from a slightly different angle to get a clear view through the aperture. Because of these different angles, the composition has a somewhat oval cross section, which is actually circular. Both holes in the diaphragms have also been highlighted and accentuated in Photoshop.
Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis, from Penard, 1902.
Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis, both arrows point to the bridge in the diaphragm. B shows a look into the aperture.
Zivkovicia compressa
Zivkovicia spectabilis, 123 µm, Tirol – Austria
Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis
Diaphragm, with two holes. The same image but now manipulated so that the two holes are better visible.
Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis, 200 µm long; the right image has been stacked
Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis

This specimen was found within a rich population of Difflugia urceolata, in a shallow sphagnumpool with Utricularia minor near the village of Kortenhoef, the Netherlands. The test has a distinct incision between neck and posterior end. The neck is remarkably hyaline compared to the fundus. Through the outer wall two holes are visible in the diaphragm. Length 110 µm.

Zivkovicia spectabilis
Two internal openings are visible between neck and body
Zivkovicia spectabilis
Zivkovicia spectabilis
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